ANXIETY DISORDERS

Individuals suffering from anxiety disorder suffer from fear or excessive concern which is generally considered out of proportion for the situations encountered.

the sufferers experience symptoms like nausea, tachycardia, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, difficult in swallowing, agitation, hypervigilence, ruminating worry and symptoms related with specific type of anxiety disorder.

Types of ANXIETY DISORDERS

SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER:

  • the symptoms often develop in childhood, they can be expressed throughout adulthood as well
  • being excessively fearful or anxious about separation from home or major attachment figures (or anxiety about harm coming to them , events that could lead to loss of or detachment from them) to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate. The individual is reluctant to go away from attachment figures, as well as experiences nightmares.
  • The disturbance causes clinically significant distress in social, academic, occupational ad other aspects of daily life.

SELECTIVE MUTISM:

  • a consistent failure to speak in social situations in which there is an expectation to speak (e.g., at school, with close friends or second-degree relatives, such as grandparents or cousins)
  • Children with selective mutism will speak in their home in the presence of immediate family members. The lack of speech may interfere with social communication and has significant consequences on achievement in academic or occupational settings
  • The disturbance is often marked by high social anxiety
  • although children with this disorder sometimes use nonverbal means (e.g., grunting, pointing, writing) to communicate and may be willing to perform or engage in social encounters when speech is not required (e.g., nonverbal parts in school plays).

SPECIFIC PHOBIA:

  • Individuals with specific phobia are fearful or anxious about or avoidant of circumscribed objects or situations. Anxiety is induced by the phobic situation, to a degree that is persistent and out of proportion to the actual risk posed.
  • There are various types of specific phobias: animal; natural environment; blood-injection-injury; situational; and other situations.

SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER (SOCIAL PHOBIA):

  • intense fear or anxiety of social situations (almost always) in which the individual may be scrutinized by others.
  • The individual is concerned that he or she will be judged as anxious, weak, crazy, stupid, boring, intimidating, dirty, or unlikable.

PANIC DISORDER:

  • PANIC ATTACK: period of abrupt onset of intense fear and discomfort along with the symptoms (palpitations, paresthesia, depersonalization, abdominal distress, nausea, intense fear of dying, intense fear of losing control “going crazy”, light headedness,chest pain, chills, choking, sweating, shortness of breath “air hunger”) usually peaking within 10 minutes of the onset. Attacks can last for one minute to 1 hour.
  • PANIC DISORDER: Panic disorder is a chronic illness characterized by recurrent panic attacks which are not triggered or expected without a clear circumscribed stimulus and associated with ≥ 1 month of: (1) persistent concern of having additional attacks or (2) worrying about consequences of attacks or (3) significant maladaptive behavioral changes related to the attack.
  • Panic attacks may be expected in response to a typically feared object or situation, or unexpected, meaning that the panic attack occurs for no apparent reason.

AGORAPHOBIA:

  • Individuals with agoraphobia are fearful and anxious ≥2 of the following situations:
  1. using public transportation
  2. being in open spaces
  3. being in enclosed places
  4. standing in line or being in a crowd
  5. being outside of the home alone in other situations.
  • these situations pose fearful thoughts such as escape might be difficult or help might not be available in the event of developing panic-like symptoms or other embarrassing symptoms.

GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER:

  • persistent and excessive worry about various domains, including work and school performance, that is hard to control, causes significant distress or impairment, and occurs on more days than not for at least six months
  • In addition, the individual experiences physical symptoms (being easily fatigued, muscle tension, sleep disturbance, difficulty concentrating) and psychological symptoms of anxiety, such as apprehensiveness and irritability

SUBSTANCE/MEDICATION-INDUCED ANXIETY DISORDER:

  • Substance/medication-induced anxiety disorder involves anxiety due to substance intoxication or withdrawal or to a medication treatment.

ANXIETY DISORDER DUE TO ANOTHER MEDICAL CONDITION:

  • In anxiety disorder due to another medical condition, anxiety symptoms are the physiological consequence of another medical condition

OTHER SPECIFIED ANXIETY DISORDER:

  • The symptoms characteristic of an anxiety disorder do not meet the full criteria for any for any specific anxiety disorder
  • the clinician chooses to communicate the specific reason that the presentation does not meet the criteria for any specific anxiety disorder
  • for example, Generalized anxiety not occurring more days than not

UNSPECIFIED ANXIETY DISORDER:

  • The symptoms characteristic of an anxiety disorder do not meet the full criteria for any for any specific anxiety disorder
  • the clinician chooses doesn’t specify the reason that the criteria are not met for a specific anxiety disorder, and includes presentations in which there is insufficient information to make a specific diagnosis (e.g., in emergency room settings).

 

References:

https://psicovalero.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/dsm-v-manual-diagnc3b3stico-y-estadc3adstico-de-los-trastornos-mentales.pdf

Paul Bolin, M.D. – YouTube