Problems are not the problem; coping is the problem. – Virginia Satir

Psychological stress is a relational concept that stems from a perceived discrepancy between an external demand and the available resources for dealing with it. The aptitude the person possesses to handle the stressful situation is referred to as coping2,9.

Coping is a cognitive-behavioral process that unfolds in the context of a situation or condition perceived as personally relevant and challenging and serves the purpose of handling the particular demand.2,8

Coping flexibility generally refers to an individual’s ability to effectively modify their coping behavior to fit the nature of a given stressful situation 10. This coping process requires individuals to employ various strategies, including comprehension of their environment, the monitoring and evaluating of coping outcomes, and the eventual abandonment of ineffective coping strategies10,11.


A study conducted in patients with cardiovascular disease shows that inflexible participants i.e., those with coping difficulty tend to select un-healthy behaviors (e.g., sedentary lifestyle or poor diet) when exposed to chronic life stress; as a result, such unhealthy behaviors might lead to negative health outcomes3,12

Another study reveals that a psychological state called Technostress, is accompanied by physical and biological manifestations (Riedl,2013), including increased arousal in employees who use computers for work (Arnetz & Wiholm, 1997).and has an influence on work exhaustion 4


Conditions which cause stress beyond the capabilities of respective individuals to bear, which itself depends upon the degree of stress and threshold of the victim to cope up with stress.

  • Research on victimization and trauma has shown that these can lead to more ineffective coping strategies of choice2,13.
  • Patients with cardiovascular diseases
  • Technostress: a modern disease of adaption caused by an inability to cope with the new computer technologies in a healthy manner” (Brod, 1984)4.
  • Post hospitalization: , caring for self, managing the condition, family, advice needed, contact with the health care system7
  • Individuals with chronic and life-long diseases.
  • Victims of physical assault


In a study regarding technostress, it is mentioned that the first thing to alleviate coping difficulty regarding the mentioned phenomenon is to eliminate maladaptive coping strategies. Followed by adapting training modules and increasing employee awareness in order to make advantageous coping choices.4

Religious activities and beliefs may function as a pervasive and potentially effective method of coping for persons with severe and persistent mental illness. It includes prayer which was found to be the most commonly used coping strategy, followed by attending religious services and worshipping God, meditation, and reading scriptures1

One can always look up to psychotherapy, when in need.



  1. The Prevalence of Religious Coping Among Persons With Persistent Mental Illness, Leslie Tepper,

Ph.D., Steven A. Rogers, M.A., Esther M. Coleman, Ph.D., H. Newton Malony, Ph.D.

  1. Stress coping strategies in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and how they relate to trauma symptoms, alexithymia, anger and mood. Lorna Myers , Melissa Fleming , Martin Lancman , Kenneth Perrine, Marcelo Lancman. Elsevier, Seizure 22 (2013) 634–639
  2. Effects of coping flexibility on cardiovascular reactivity to task difficulty.Tsukasa Kat. Elsevier, Journal of Psychosomatic Research 95 (2017) 1–6
  3. The mediating roles of strain facets and coping strategies in translating techno-stressors into adverse job outcomes. Fulvio Gaudioso , Ofir Turel , Carlo Galimberti. Elsevier. Computers in Human Behavior 69 (2017) 189e196
  4. Type D personality, stress coping strategies and self-efficacy as predictors of Facebook intrusion Agata Błachnioa, Aneta Przepiorkaa, Stanisław Jerzy Czuczwarb. Elsevier. Psychiatry Research 253 (2017) 33–37.
  5. Stress coping strategies in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and how they relate to trauma symptoms, alexithymia, anger and mood Lorna Myers, Melissa Fleming, Martin Lancman , Kenneth Perrine, Marcelo Lancman. Elsevier, Seizure 22 (2013) 634–639
  6. Coping difficulties after hospitalization. Fitzgerald Miller JPiacentine LBWeiss M. 2008 Nov;17(4):278-96. doi: 10.1177/1054773808325226.
  7. S.A. Everson-Rose, T.T. Lewis, Psychosocial factors and cardiovascular diseases, Annu. Rev. Public Health 26 (2005) 469–500.
  8. Kroll J, Sheehan W: Religious beliefs and practices among 52 psychiatric inpatients in Minnesota. American Journal of Psychiatry 146:67–72, 1989
  9. T. Kato, Development of the coping flexibility scale: evidence for the coping flexibil-

ity hypothesis, J. Couns. Psychol. 59 (2012) 262–273.


  1. T. Kato, The dual-process theory: new approach to coping flexibility, in: M.A. Basińska (Ed.), Coping Flexibility with Stress in Health and in Disease, Wydawnictwo UKW, Bydgoszcz 2015, pp. 19–37.


  1. A.R. Schwartz, W. Gerin, K. Davidson, et al., Toward a causal model of cardiovascular responses to stress and the development of cardiovascular disease, Psychosom. Med. 65 (2003) 22–35.


  1. 27. Lepore SJ. Social-environmental influences on the chronic stress process. Coping with chronic stress The Plenum series on stress and coping, Ontario, Canada: Plenum Press; 1997. p. 133–60.