PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS

Psychosis is a state of the mind broadly defined as severe disconnection from reality.

SYMPTOMS:

Following mentioned symptoms are some of the common features experienced by people diagnosed with any of the psychotic disorder.

  • hallucinations
  • delusions
  • positive formal thought disorder
  • catatonia (severe decrease in reactivity to one’s surroundings
  • affective deterioration
  • negative symptoms (eg flat affect)
  • depression
  • mania

TYPES OF PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS

PRIMARY PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS:

  • SCHIZOPHRENIA: Is a psychiatric illness characterized by chronic or recurrent psychosis often presenting in late teens/early 20s.
  • DELUSIONAL DISORDER: is characterized by presence of delusions
    (but no other psychotic symptoms) for at least 1 month.
  • SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER: Is a perplexing mental illness that shares the features of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder either simultaneously or at different points during course of their illness (Dlores Malaspina, 2013).
  • SCHIZOPHRENIFORM: is characterized by the presence of the symptoms of schizophrenia, but it is distinguished from that condition by its shorter duration, which is at least 1 month but less than 6 months.
  • BRIEF PSYCHOTIC DISORDER: Brief psychotic disorder is currently classified with schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. It is differentiated from other related disorders by its sudden onset, its relatively short duration (< 1 month), and the full return of functioning.

PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS DUE TO ANOTHER MEDICAL CONDITIONS:

The essential features of psychotic disorder i.e., delusions or hallucinations are judged to be attributable to the physiological effects of another medical condition and are not better explained by another mental disorder.

  • Dementia of alzeimer’s type
  • Traumatic brain injury

SUBSTANCE/MEDICATION INDUCED PSYCHOTIC DISORDER

The essential features of substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder are prominent delusions and/or hallucinations that are judged to be due to the physiological effects of a substance/medication.

  • Psychoactive substance such as amphetamines, cannabis

TREATMENT

It depends upon the type of psychotic disorder. Certain options worth mentioning are:

  • Therapies- psychotherapy, group therapy, cognitive therapy etc
  • Pharmacotherapy- disorder specific medications.

 

References:

  1. Quality of life of people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other psychotic disorders Samuli I. Saarni, Satu Viertiö, Jonna Perälä, Seppo Koskinen, Jouko Lönnqvist, Jaana Suvisaari

The British Journal of Psychiatry Oct 2010, 197 (5) 386-394; DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.109.076489

  1. Oxford handbook of clinical speciality 9th ed.
  2. DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS FIFTH EDITION DSM-5